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Focus stratégique

Des armes à tout faire ? Modularité et polyvalence des équipements militaires

Joseph HENROTIN

Focus stratégique, no. 54, October 2014

Versatility and modularity have been praised as design imperatives for military hardware, in order to reduce costs as well as to facilitate training and maintenance. But those concepts need to be further defined, specifically with regard to the...

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Les chars, un héritage intempestif ?

Antoine d'EVRY

Focus stratégique, no. 53, September 2014

Regarded as a revolutionary weapon at the beginning of the 20th century, the tank is now suffering from a lack of legitimacy: in the last 20 years, most European states have drastically reduced their tank fleets, sometimes even entirely removing...

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Les chausse-trapes de la remontée en puissance. Défis et écueils du redressement militaire

Guillaume GARNIER

Focus stratégique, no. 52, May 2014

A process of military resurgence shows a government’s will to strengthen its defense apparatus, either to face new strategic challenges or, more frequently, to reverse decline of its capabilities. The ongoing budgetary crisis, which keeps...

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La réforme du secteur de sécurité, entre bureaucraties et stratégie

Aline LEBOEUF

Focus stratégique, No. 51, April 2014

The concept of Security Sector Reform (SSR) was developed during the 1990s as a response to several problems chiefly faced by countries in post-conflict transitions: weak new governments; conflicting civil-military relations; ill-defined division of...

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Quelles perspectives pour l'industrie européenne des armements terrestres?

Aude-Emmanuelle FLEURANT, Yannick QUEAU

Focus stratégique, No. 50, March 2014

Over the last decade, the European land armament industry developed into a thriving market driven by growing demand from the BRICS, a new wave of emerging countries and the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, the 2008 financial crisis and the...

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The Amphibious Endeavour: Tactical Risk, Strategic Influence

Guillaume GARNIER

Focus stratégique No. 46 bis, February 2014

Despite a centuries-long history, amphibious operations were rarely in the spotlight before the Second World War. Meteorological constraints and joint planning challenges both emphasize their risky and complex character. Lessons learned highlight...

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Unmanned Air Systems: The Future of Air & Sea Power?

Paul ROGERS

Focus stratégique, No. 49, January 2014

  Since their early use for primitive ISR and combined operations, UAS have developed into increasingly multipurpose instruments performing a wide array of missions (from limited strike operations, search and monitoring to time-sensitive...

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La fin du régiment ? Trente ans de déstructuration de l'organisation tactique régimentaire

André THIEBLEMONT

Focus stratégique, No. 48, November 2013

The new organization of land forces breaks with a centuries-old tactical order: the regiment. Born out of political constraints that have shaped its history, the regimental order has accompanied the rise of the nation state; the Third Republic, for...

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Drones-tueurs et éliminations ciblées. Les Etats-Unis contre Al-Qaïda et ses affiliés

Stéphane TAILLAT

Focus stratégique, No. 47, October 2013

Armed drones – as they enable targeted killings – are henceforward playing a central role in American counterterrorism. This method, first initiated under President George W. Bush, has been particularly developed under President Barack...

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Le pari de l'amphibie : risque tactique, influence stratégique

Guillaume GARNIER

Focus stratégique, No. 46, September 2013

Despite a centuries-long history, amphibious operations have rarely been in the spotlight before the Second World War. Meteorological constraints and joint planning challenges both emphasize their risky and complex character. Lessons learned...

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The IDF on All Fronts: Dealing with Israeli Strategic Uncertainty

Pierre RAZOUX

Focus stratégique, No. 45 bis, August 2013

Facing threats on all its borders as well as social, economic and religious tensions, the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) are now under significant pressure in accomplishing their core mission: the survival of the State of Israel. While the post-Arab...

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Tsahal sur tous les fronts. L'armée israélienne dans l'incertitude stratégique

Pierre RAZOUX

Focus stratégique, No. 45, July 2013

Facing threats on all its borders, as well as social, economic and religious tensions, the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) is now under significant pressure for ensuring its core mission: the survival of the State of Israel. While the post-Arab Spring...

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Cyberguerre. En quête d'une stratégie

Michel BAUD

Focus stratégique n° 44, mai 2013

Cyberspace, as a major but intricate field of action, represents both a challenge and a great strategic advantage. At a time when information technology affects all relationships at a global level, states are destabilized by growing dependence on...

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Defence Reform in the United Kingdom: A Twenty-First Century Paradox

John LOUTH

Focus stratégique, No. 43, March 2013

The context of budgetary constraint offered a strong incentive for the 2010 Coalition Government to improve its management of defence equipment. Before that, the previous Labour governments already focused on smart acquisition so that the...

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Toujours plus chers ? Complexité des armements et inflation des coûts militaires

Sophie LEFEEZ

Focus stratégique, no. 42, February 2013

While French military expenditures have remained relatively constant over the last ten years, equipment production tended to decrease, resulting in capability gaps. This situation highlights the increasing costs of both acquiring and maintaining...

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Winning in Libya: By Design or Default?

Michael W. KOMETER, Stephen E. WRIGHT

Focus stratégique, No. 41, January 2013

The 2011 insurgency in Libya brought about the demise of Supreme Leader Mouammar Qadhafi. A NATO-led coalition operated to meet a unique United Nations mandate including an arms embargo, no-fly zone, and the requirement to protect the population...

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The Defense Budget in France: Between Denial and Decline

Martial FOUCAULT

Focus stratégique no. 36 bis, December 2012

Although defense spending is the fourth budget item in France, it is rarely a matter of public debate. During the past three decades, defense has been affected in turn by the desire to rip the benefit of the post-Cold War “peace...

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Contenir la piraterie: des réponses complexes face à une menace persistante

Hugues EUDELINE

Focus stratégique n° 40, novembre 2012

Economic globalization has developed in favor of an increase of maritime flows, thus offering a revival to the millennium history of piracy. Present on all the seas around the world – particularly in the Gulf of Guinea, the Horn of Africa and...

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The Battle over Fire Support: The CAS Challenge and the Future of Artillery

Elie TENENBAUM

Focus stratégique no.35 bis, october 2012

Traditionally, maneuver units are designed for mobility and control of the ground, while supporting forces (artillery, aviation) deliver fires to protect the former and ensure their freedom of action. As a result of the introduction of mobile...

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Les réserves en première ligne? Du citoyen-soldat à l'intérim

Michel BAUD

Focus stratégique, no. 39, September 2012

A central piece of national security during two centuries and an essential link between the military and the people, the French reserve forces have considerably decreased over the last decades. Nevertheless, new economic constraints now urge for...

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Building Security Institutions: Lessons Learned in Afghanistan

Olivier NEOLA

Focus stratégique no.38, July-August 2012

After its rapid military victory over the Taliban, the international community underestimated the resources, time and work that would be required enforce to Security Sector Reform (SSR) in Afghanistan. Even though the Afghan population was...

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Establishing the Rule of Law: the U.N. Challenge in Kosovo

Jean-Christian CADY

Focus stratégique no.34 bis, June 2012

Created on the 10th July 1999 by Security Council Resolution 1244, UNMIK was responsible for restructuring the institutions of a country devastated by war and establishing democratic governance. The security of people and goods and the existence of...

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Les opérations aéroportées: la profondeur stratégique en question

Benoît MICHEL

Focus stratégique no.37, May 2012

Airborne operations draw their strategic importance from the scale and magnitude they provide to air-land operations. Yet, their concept of employment, shaped by their historical legacy may seem unfit to contemporary requirements – especially...

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Les budgets de défense en France, entre déni et déclin

Martial FOUCAULT

Focus stratégique n°36, avril 2012

Although defense spending is the fourth budget item in France, it is rarely a matter of public debate. During the past three decades, defense has been affected in turn by the desire to rip the benefit of the post-Cold War “peace...

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Entre ciel et terre. Le débat air-sol et les défis de l'appui-feu

Elie TENENBAUM

Focus stratégique, no. 35, February 2012

Traditionally, maneuver units are designed for mobility and control of the ground, while supporting forces (artillery, aviation) deliver fires to protect the former and ensure their freedom of action. As a result of the introduction of mobile...

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Helicopter Warfare. The Future of Airmobility and Rotary Wing Combat.

Etienne de DURAND, Benoît MICHEL, Elie TENENBAUM

Focus stratégique no. 32 bis, January 2012

Military helicopters have evolved into technologically sophisticated weapon systems. Originally designed to counter Soviet armor, attack helicopters now have to cope with a wide spectrum of threats, some of them bringing them back to their...

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Digital Hoplites. Infantry Combat in the Information Age

Pierre CHAREYRON

Focus stratégique no. 30 bis, December 2011

FELIN, the world's first "integrated soldier system", will enter service in the French Army this year. Throughout history, infantrymen have sought to capitalize on technology while seeking the best compromise between three basic requirements:...

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Etablir l'état de droit au Kosovo. Succès et échecs des Nations unies.

Jean-Christian CADY

Focus stratégique no. 34, November 2011

Created on the 10th July 1999 by Security Council Resolution 1244, UNMIK was responsible for restructuring the institutions of a country devastated by war and establishing democratic governance. The security of people and goods and the existence of...

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Apprendre ou disparaître? Le retour d'expérience dans les armées occidentales

Corentin BRUSTLEIN

Focus stratégique no. 33, October 2011

Whether in times of war or in times of peace, uncertainty is an inherent characteristic of conflicts. It is in this unpredictable environment that armies operate, and so they must constantly adapt in order to remain effective political instruments....

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Toward the end of force projection? II. Operational responses and political perspectives

Corentin BRUSTLEIN

Focus stratégique, no. 21 bis, September 2011

For more than a decade, US defense circles have been concerned about the emergence of capabilities and strategies, which, as they spread, risk imperiling the United States’ position in the world by their ability to disrupt or prevent force...

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Toward the End of Force Projection? I. The Anti-Access Threat

Corentin BRUSTLEIN

Focus stratégique, no. 20 bis, July 2011

Force projection has become a general posture and a fundamental dimension of the influence Western powers intend to exert over the world by means of their armed forces. However, for the last fifteen years, Western states' adoption of expeditionary...

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La guerre des hélicoptères: L'avenir de l'aéromobilité et de l'aérocombat

Etienne de DURAND, Benoît MICHEL, Elie TENENBAUM

Focus stratégique No. 32, June 2011

Military helicopters have evolved into technologically sophisticated weapon systems. Originally designed to counter Soviet armor, attack helicopters now have to cope with a wide spectrum of threats, some of them bringing choppers back to their...

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NATO Partnerships: Shaking Hands or Shaking the System?

Vivien PERTUSOT

Focus stratégique, No 31, May 2011

The new Strategic Concept takes stock of the past ten years but outlines only modest objectives for the future of NATO. Partnership falls under the third core task, cooperative security. A subsequent partnership policy was unveiled, but has provided...

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Hoplites numériques. Le combat d'infanterie à l'âge de l'information

Pierre CHAREYRON

Focus stratégique, n. 30, April 2011

FELIN, the first "integrated soldier system" in the world, will be effective this year in the French Army. Throughout history, infantrymen have tried to capitalize on technology while trying to arbitrate between the three basic requirements that are...

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Francs-tireurs et Centurions. Les ambiguïtés de l'héritage contre-insurrectionnel français

Etienne de DURAND

Focus stratégique, n. 29, March 2011

The war in Afghanistan and David Galula’s reputation in the United States have revived France’s counterinsurgency legacy. This legacy must be divided into two separate periods: the colonial era and later on the wars of decolonization...

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La posture stratégique indienne face au défi pakistanais

Guillem MONSONIS

Focus stratégique, no.28, february 2011

In 1998, Pakistan conducted its first nuclear tests, transforming the regional strategic balance. India's previous posture, based on the Sundarji doctrine, was found to be inadequate in this new context. To break this strategic deadlock, India...

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Les camps de réfugiés et la guerre. Du sanctuaire à l'enfermement humanitaire ?

Marc-Antoine PEROUSE de MONTCLOS

Focus stratégique no.27, January 2011

Refugee and IDP camps, intended to protect civilians affected by conflicts and natural disasters, have an undeniable strategic importance, and their management can be critical for the resolution of crises. During the Cold War, camps – often...

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Caveats to Civilian Aid Programs in Counterinsurgency. The French Experience in Afghanistan

Amaury de FELIGONDE

Focus stratégique, No 24 bis, December 2010

Amaury de Féligonde has just spent one year in Kapisa and Surobi as a project manager within the Afghan-Pakistan Interministerial Unit. Back in France, he expresses his personal views and draws conclusions from his experience. Thus, he...

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L'ONU, Pygmalion malhabile: la fragilité du nation building au Timor

Dominique LECOMPTE

Focus stratégique, no. 26, November 2010.

Lorsque le 25 octobre 1999 les Nations unies sont chargées d’administrer le Timor-Leste et de le mener à l’indépendance, le territoire est en ruine. Les Indonésiens ont saccagé les infrastructures, le...

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France's Return into NATO. French Military Culture and Strategic Identity in Question

Anne-Henry DE RUSSE

Focus stratégique, No 22 bis, October 2010

More than 40 years after the unilateral decision by General de Gaulle to withdraw French forces from NATO's integrated military command, President Sarkozy decided that France would reintegrate the Atlantic Alliance’s military structure,...

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Contre-insurrection et action psychologique: tradition et modernité

François GERE

Focus stratégique, no.25, September 2010

Les conflits d’aujourd’hui se déroulent dans un environnement technologique bien plus sophistiqué que pendant la période de la décolonisation. De nouveaux moyens aisément accessibles permettent aux...

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La coopération civile en Afghanistan. Une coûteuse illusion?

Amaury de FELIGONDE

Focus stratégique, no.24, August 2010

L'auteur de ce Focus stratégique vient de passer un an en Kapisa et Surobi en qualité de chef de projet au sein de la Cellule Interministérielle Afghanistan Pakistan. De retour en France et s'exprimant à titre...

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Les armées britanniques. Un modèle en crise

Pierre CHAREYRON

Focus stratégique, no. 23, July 2010

  Le Royaume-Uni est entré dans l'ère de l'après 11 septembre avec un modèle d'armée repensé à la fin des années 1990 en fonction de deux grands axes de réflexion. L'absence de...

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La France dans l'OTAN. La culture militaire française et l'identité stratégique en question

Anne-Henry de RUSSÉ

Focus stratégique no.22, June 2010

Plus de quarante ans après la décision unilatérale du général De Gaulle de retirer les forces armées françaises du commandement intégré de l’OTAN, le président Sarkozy a...

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Vers la fin de la projection de forces ? II. Parades opérationnelles et perspectives politiques

Corentin BRUSTLEIN

Focus stratégique no.21, May 2010

For more than a decade, US defense circles have been concerned about the emergence of capabilities and strategies, which, as they spread, risk imperiling the United States’ position in the world by their ability to disrupt or prevent force...

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Vers la fin de la projection de forces ? I. La menace du déni d'accès

Corentin BRUSTLEIN

Focus stratégique no.20, April 2010

Force projection has become a general posture and a fundamental dimension of the influence Western powers intend to exert over the world by means of their armed forces. However, for the last fifteen years, Western states' adoption of...

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Soutien santé: le défi afghan

Aline LEBOEUF

Focus stratégique no. 19, February 2010

Contrairement aux progrès continus réalisés par la médecine civile, les améliorations en matière de traitement et d'évacuation des blessés de guerre dépendent d'abord de la...

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La transformation, pour quoi faire ? Défis d'aujourd'hui et de demain

John GORDON IV

Focus stratégique no. 11bis, January 2010

The term "transformation" is often heard in Western – especially U.S. – military circles. "Transformation" is generally intended to convey the notion of major, productive change for the future that will result in improved military...

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La protection du territoire national par l'armée de Terre. Fondements, limites et perspectives

Marie-Dominique CHARLIER

Focus stratégique n°18, November 2009

Cette étude analyse le recours à l'armée de Terre en vue d'assurer la protection du territoire national. Dans la logique du Livre blanc qui a consacré le continuum sécurité-défense, l'auteur...

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Le feu dans le modèle de guerre occidental: de l'intégration tactique aux dommages collatéraux

Laurent FROMAGET

Focus stratégique, n°17, June 2009

The firepower potentially available to Western armies is nowadays almost unlimited. Yet most conflicts are fought for limited stakes, and the political constraints on the use of force have increased accordingly. This study proposes to analyze how...

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« Transformation » et contre-insurrection : Implications capacitaires pour les forces terrestres occidentales

Anne-Henry de RUSSÉ

Focus stratégique, n°16, May 2009

Afin de dépasser les débats entre les partisans de la 'Transformation militaire' et les tenants du modèle de 'guerre au sein des populations', cette étude souligne la nécessité de concevoir un format...

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Candide in Congo. The expected failure of Security Sector Reform (SSR)

Sébastien MELMOT

Focus stratégique, n° 9bis, April 2009

From Afghanistan to the Central African Republic, through Haiti and Guinea Bissau, 'failed' or fragile states have finally turned out to be much more resilient than planned to the Security Sector Reforms (SSR) and other imported reforms of...

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Achats en urgence contre programmation: l'efficacité des opérations d'armement en temps de guerre

Louis-Marie CLOUET

Focus stratégique n°15, Paris, Ifri, March 2009

Dans des conditions d'engagement actuelles qui diffèrent des combats de haute intensité ou des opérations extérieures " habituelles " menées en Afrique, l'armée française fait face à des...

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Pakistan: du désordre à la guerre civile ?

Laurent GAYER

Focus stratégique n°14, February 2009

While the Pakistani state is on the decline, the militarization of the society increases. By arming the Pashtun tribes so that they stand up to the local Taliban, the Pakistani state fully contributes to its own process of marginalization. That...

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Entre développement et sécurité : les interventions allemandes en crise

Aline LEBOEUF

Focus stratégique n°13, Paris, Ifri, January 2009

Germany has made significant efforts and many "small steps" to adapt itself to the challenges of foreign military operations as the implementation of the "security and development" approach has demonstrated. However, those efforts have turned out to...

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La tentation internationale d'Al-Qaïda au Maghreb

Mathieu GUIDERE

Focus stratégique n°12, December 2008

At the beginning of 2007 the creation of the organization called Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) was announced. Contrary to a generally accepted idea, that designation is not only a new label for the former Groupe Salafiste pour la...

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Transforming for What ? Challenges Facing Western Militaries Today

John GORDON IV

Focus stratégique n°11, November 2008

The term "transformation" is often heard in Western – especially U.S. – military circles. "Transformation" is generally intended to convey the notion of major, productive change for the future that will result in improved military...

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La surprise stratégique. De la notion aux implications

Corentin BRUSTLEIN

Focus stratégique n°10, October 2008

The concept of strategic surprise has rarely been defined precisely and generally conveys the idea of a badly or non-anticipated threat which unexpectedly hits a state, shaking its conceptions and its position towards security. Until the 1980s...

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Candide in Congo. The expected failure of Security Sector Reform (SSR)

Sébastien MELMOT

Focus stratégique, n° 9, September 2008

From Afghanistan to the Central African Republic, through Haiti and Guinea Bissau, 'failed' or fragile states have finally turned out to be much more resilient than planned to the Security Sector Reforms (SSR) and other imported  reforms of...

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La notion de partage capacitaire en question

Philippe COQUET

Focus stratégique n° 8, June 2008

In Europe and to a lesser extent in the rest of the world, the last decades have been characterized by two concomitant phenomena : the increasing cost of armament technology which has become always more sophisticated as well as the reduction in the...

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L'aide au développement face à la guerre

Jean-Bernard VERON

Focus stratégique, n° 7, May 2008

Development aid has progressively penetrated the fields of conflicts and "fragility". It tends to become a key component of external interventions, next to military action and diplomacy. As a result, it is subjected to the final goals of those...

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Du bon usage de la terreur

Marc HECKER

Focus stratégique, n° 6, April 2008

What is the role of terror in wars in general and in asymmetric conflicts in particular? Why have democratic countries such as France and the United States been confronted to torture in Algeria and Irak? Do terrorists have to be "terrorized"? That...

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Birthing Athena. The Uncertain Future of European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP)

Christopher S. CHIVVIS

Focus stratégique, n°5, March 2008

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Stabiliser autrement ? Les équipes provinciales de reconstruction (PRT) en Afghanistan

Laurent FROMAGET, Paul HAERI

Focus stratégique n°4, January 2008.

Jadis simple corollaire de l'action militaire, ce qu'il est convenu d'appeler la bataille des cœurs et des esprits constitue désormais l'un des enjeux principaux du conflit et en tout état de cause, l'enjeu majeur de la sortie de...

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L'interarmées aux États-Unis - rivalités bureaucratiques, enjeux opérationnels et idéologie de la jointness

Etienne de DURAND

Focus stratégique n°3, November 2007

Thème lancé pendant les années 1980 et constamment repris depuis, érigé en obligation impérieuse et presque en dogme pendant l'ère Rumsfeld, l'interarmisation ou jointness s'inscrit en...

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Après l'échec. Les réorientations de Tsahal depuis la deuxième guerre du Liban

Pierre RAZOUX

Focus stratégique, n°2, October 2007

La commission Winograd a mis en avant certains dysfonctionnements de l'armée israélienne au cours du conflit de l'été 2006. Les errements du processus de décision stratégique ont également...

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Opérations basées sur les effets : rationalité et réalité

Philippe COQUET

Focus stratégique n°1, October 2007

Apparue aux États Unis dans l'euphorie de l'éclatante victoire aéroterrestre de la première guerre du Golfe en 1991, l'idée de concevoir les opérations à partir des effets que l'on souhaite obtenir...

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